Wahlen in england
Die Wahl zum Unterhaus im Vereinigten Königreich fand am 8. Juni statt. Es war die . Die Schulen in England sollen bis zusätzliche 4 Milliarden Pfund erhalten. Die Netto-Einwanderung .. Wahlen im Vereinigten Königreich. Dennoch ist nichts wie bei früheren Wahlen. nationale Stimmung ist gelangweilte Wut»: Der politische Cartoonist Martin Rowson über die Wahlen in England. Sept. ihre Brexit-Pläne habe May ihre politischen Berater angewiesen, einen Notfallplan für vorgezogene Wahlen im November auszuarbeiten. Nach dem Parteistatut manuel neuer kapitän der Bevan -Sitz dem Kandidaten zu, der bei den vorangegangenen Vorstandswahlen die nächstmeisten Stimmen bekommen hatte. Aprilabgerufen am Was hat Labour falsch gemacht? Kurz nach der Wahl kündigte die Premierministerin an, dass ihre Regierung in Zukunft mit der nordirischen Democratic Unionist Party DUP zusammenarbeiten werde, allerdings nicht in Form einer festen Koalition, sondern auf Basis inhaltlicher Vereinbarungen. Die Dauer der Legislaturperiode beträgt fünf Jahre. Mit Vince Cable zog über den Wahlkreis Twickenham jedoch wieder ein prominenter Liberaldemokrat ins Unterhaus ein, nachdem dieser seinen Sitz verloren hatte. Die Wahlkreisgrenzen sind seit unverändert. Championsliga Wahlen in der Europäischen Union Nach dem Terroranschlag in Manchester am News zu den britischen Unterhauswahlen Seite 1. Tories bei Wahl in England Besser als befürchtet Stand: Reformdiskussionen Die Disproportionalität eldorado casino admiral Wahlsystems führte in jüngerer Vergangenheit mehrfach german clash Diskussionen und Überlegungen zu möglichen Reformen: Dieses Ergebnis konnte sie diesmal nicht wiederholen. Bitte überprüfen Sie Ihre Eingaben. In seinen Augen haben die britischen Bürger mit ihrer Wahlentscheidung gezeigt, dass sie nicht mit sich spielen lassen wollten.
England selected Local News Regions. Live Latest as snow and ice hits England. Burglar who had sex with corpse jailed 1 February Flights cancelled after snow shuts airport 1 February Porn actor fined for threesome on Tube 1 February Grandmother killed by sleeping driver 1 February Woman in labour stranded by snowfall.
Boy, six, took knife to school. Rare ice pancakes form on cold river. Dozens brave snow to see royal couple. Also in the news.
Stranded dog rescued from icy canal bank 1 February Rough sleeping What is being done about homelessness?
Members are elected for four-year terms under the mixed member proportional representation system. As a result, 73 MSPs represent individual geographical constituencies elected by the plurality "first past the post" system, with a further 56 returned from eight additional member regions, each electing seven MSPs.
The current Scottish Parliament was established by the Scotland Act and its first meeting as a devolved legislature was on 12 May The parliament has the power to pass laws and has limited tax-varying capability.
Another of its roles is to hold the Scottish Government to account. The "devolved matters" over which it has responsibility include education , health , agriculture, and justice.
A degree of domestic authority, and all foreign policy, remains with the UK Parliament in Westminster. The public take part in Parliament in a way that is not the case at Westminster through Cross-Party Groups on policy topics which the interested public join and attend meetings of alongside Members of the Scottish Parliament MSPs.
Nationalism support for breaking up the UK has experienced a dramatic rise in popularity in recent years, with a pivotal moment coming at the Scottish Parliament election where the SNP capitalised on the collapse of the Liberal Democrat support to improve on their performance to win the first ever outright majority at Holyrood despite the voting system being specifically designed to prevent majorities , with Labour remaining the largest opposition party.
This election result prompted the leader of the three main opposition parties to resign. Also in the wake of the referendum, Scottish Labour leader, Johann Lamont, stood down and Jim Murphy was elected to replace her.
Mr Murphy was the leader of Scottish Labour Party until the general election on in which he lost his seat in Westminster, after the defeat he resigned his position and her deputy MSP Kezia Dugdale became leader of the party and leader of SLP in Holyrood.
The National Assembly for Wales is the devolved parliament of Wales with power to make legislation and vary taxes. The Assembly was created by the Government of Wales Act , which followed a referendum in On its creation, most of the powers of the Welsh Office and Secretary of State for Wales were transferred to it.
The Assembly had no powers to initiate primary legislation until limited law-making powers were gained through the Government of Wales Act Its primary law-making powers were enhanced following a Yes vote in the referendum on 3 March , making it possible for it to legislate without having to consult the UK parliament , nor the Secretary of State for Wales in the 20 areas that are devolved.
This created the Northern Ireland Assembly. The Assembly is a unicameral body consisting of members elected under the Single Transferable Vote form of proportional representation.
The Assembly is based on the principle of power-sharing, in order to ensure that both communities in Northern Ireland, unionist and nationalist , participate in governing the region.
It has power to legislate in a wide range of areas and to elect the Northern Ireland Executive cabinet.
It sits at Parliament Buildings at Stormont in Belfast. The Assembly has authority to legislate in a field of competences known as "transferred matters".
These matters are not explicitly enumerated in the Northern Ireland Act but instead include any competence not explicitly retained by the Parliament at Westminster.
Powers reserved by Westminster are divided into "excepted matters", which it retains indefinitely, and "reserved matters", which may be transferred to the competence of the Northern Ireland Assembly at a future date.
Health, criminal law and education are "transferred" while royal relations are all "excepted". While the Assembly was in suspension, due to issues involving the main parties and the Provisional Irish Republican Army IRA , its legislative powers were exercised by the UK government, which effectively had power to legislate by decree.
Laws that would normally be within the competence of the Assembly were passed by the UK government in the form of Orders-in-Council rather than legislative acts.
Today the UK has three distinct systems of law: English law , Northern Ireland law and Scots law. Recent constitutional changes saw a new Supreme Court of the United Kingdom come into being in October that took on the appeal functions of the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords.
Both English law, which applies in England and Wales , and Northern Ireland law are based on common-law principles. The essence of common-law is that law is made by judges sitting in courts, applying their common sense and knowledge of legal precedent stare decisis to the facts before them.
The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the highest court in the land for both criminal and civil cases in England , Wales , and Northern Ireland and any decision it makes is binding on every other court in the hierarchy.
Scots law, a hybrid system based on both common-law and civil-law principles, applies in Scotland. The chief courts are the Court of Session , for civil cases, and the High Court of Justiciary , for criminal cases.
The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom serves as the highest court of appeal for civil cases under Scots law. Sheriff courts deal with most civil and criminal cases including conducting criminal trials with a jury, known that as Sheriff solemn Court, or with a Sheriff and no jury, known as Sheriff summary Court.
The Sheriff courts provide a local court service with 49 Sheriff courts organised across six Sheriffdoms. The use of the first-past-the-post to elect members of Parliament is unusual among European nations.
The use of the system means that when three or more candidates receive a significant share of the vote, MPs are often elected from individual constituencies with a plurality receiving more votes than any other candidate , but not an absolute majority 50 percent plus one vote.
The UK, like several other states, has sometimes been called a "two-and-a-half" party system, because parliamentary politics is dominated by the Labour Party and Conservative Party, while the Liberal Democrats, used to, hold a significant number of seats but still substantially less than Labour and the Conservatives , and several small parties some of them regional or nationalist trailing far behind in number of seats, although this changed in the general election.
No single party has won a majority of the popular vote since the Third National Government of Stanley Baldwin in On two occasions since World War II — and February — a party that came in second in the popular vote actually came out with the larger number of seats.
Electoral reform for parliamentary elections have been proposed many times. Under this proposal, most MPs would be directly elected from constituencies by the alternative vote , with a number of additional members elected from "top-up lists.
The general election resulted in a hung parliament no single party being able to command a majority in the House of Commons.
This was only the second general election since World War II to return a hung parliament, the first being the February election. The Conservatives gained the most seats ending 13 years of Labour government and the largest percentage of the popular vote, but fell 20 seats short of a majority.
The Conservatives and Liberal Democrats entered into a new coalition government , headed by David Cameron. Under the terms of the coalition agreement the government committed itself to hold a referendum in May on whether to change parliamentary elections from first-past-the-post to AV.
Electoral reform was a major priority for the Liberal Democrats, who favour proportional representation but were able to negotiate only a referendum on AV with the Conservatives.
The coalition partners campaigned on opposite sides, with the Liberal Democrats supporting AV and the Conservatives opposing it.
Since the s the two main political parties in the UK, in terms of the number of seats in the House of Commons , are the Conservative and Unionist Party and the Labour Party.
The Scottish National Party has the second largest party membership,  but a smaller number of MPs as it only fields candidates for constituencies in Scotland.
The modern day Conservative Party was founded in and is an outgrowth of the Tory movement or party, which began in The modern Liberal Party had been founded in as an outgrowth of the Whig movement or party which began at the same time as the Tory Party and was its historical rival as well as the Radical and Peelite tendencies.
The Liberal Party was one of the two dominant parties along with the Conservatives from its founding until the s, when it rapidly declined in popularity, and was supplanted on the left by the Labour Party, which was founded in and formed its first minority government in Since that time, the Labour and Conservative parties have been dominant, with the Liberals later Liberal Democrats being the third-largest party until , when they lost 49 of their 57 seats, while the Scottish National Party gained 56 seats.
Founded in , the SNP advocates Scottish independence and has had continuous representation in Parliament since At the most recent general election in , the Conservatives, although increased their share of the vote; lost their overall majority in the House of Commons after previously commanding a majority for two years between However, the Conservatives did manage to gain 12 new seats in Scotland, as well as retaining the one seat from the previous election.
This was the best Conservative Party result in Scotland since the general election. The Conservatives won only seats at the general election, but went on to form a confidence and supply deal with the DUP Democratic Unionist Party who got 10 seats in the House of Commons, allowing the Conservative Party to remain in government.
The term "Tory" originates from the Exclusion Bill crisis of - the Whigs were those who supported the exclusion of the Roman Catholic Duke of York from the thrones of England, Ireland and Scotland, and the Tories were those who opposed it.
Both names were originally insults: Generally, the Tories were associated with lesser gentry and the Church of England, while Whigs were more associated with trade, money, larger land holders or "land magnates" , expansion and tolerance of Catholicism.
The Rochdale Radicals were a group of more extreme reformists who were also heavily involved in the cooperative movement.
They sought to bring about a more equal society, and are considered by modern standards to be left-wing.
After becoming associated with repression of popular discontent in the years after , the Tories underwent a fundamental transformation under the influence of Robert Peel , himself an industrialist rather than a landowner, who in his " Tamworth Manifesto " outlined a new "Conservative" philosophy of reforming ills while conserving the good.
The Conservatives were in government for eighteen years between —, under the leadership of the first-ever female Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher , and former Chancellor of the Exchequer John Major — Their landslide defeat at the general election saw the Conservative Party lose over half their seats gained in , and saw the party re-align with public perceptions of them.
The Conservatives lost all their seats in both Scotland and Wales, and was their worst defeat since After thirteen years in opposition, the Conservatives returned to power as part of a coalition agreement with the Liberal Democrats in , going on to form a majority government in The Conservative Party is the only party in the history of the United Kingdom to have been governed by a female Prime Minister.
The unionist tendency is still in evidence today, manifesting sometimes as a scepticism or opposition to devolution, firm support for the continued existence of the United Kingdom in the face of movements advocating independence from the UK, and a historic link with the cultural unionism of Northern Ireland.
The Labour Party won the second-largest number of seats in the House of Commons at the general election, with seats overall.
The history of the Labour Party goes back to , when a Labour Representation Committee was established and changed its name to "The Labour Party" in After the First World War , this led to the demise of the Liberal Party as the main reformist force in British politics.
The existence of the Labour Party on the left-wing of British politics led to a slow waning of energy from the Liberal Party, which has consequently assumed third place in national politics.
After performing poorly at the general elections of , and , the Liberal Party was superseded by the Labour Party as being the party of the left.
Following two brief spells in minority governments in and —, the Labour Party won a landslide victory after World War II at the " khaki election "; winning a majority for the first time ever.
Throughout the rest of the twentieth century, Labour governments alternated with Conservative governments. The Labour Party suffered the "wilderness years" of — three consecutive general election defeats and — four consecutive general election defeats.
During this second period, Margaret Thatcher , who became Leader of the Conservative Party in , made a fundamental change to Conservative policies, turning the Conservative Party into an economically liberal party.
For all of the s and most of the s, Conservative governments under Thatcher and her successor John Major pursued policies of privatisation , anti- trade-unionism , and, for a time, monetarism , now known collectively as Thatcherism.
The Labour Party elected left-winger Michael Foot as their leader in , and he responded to dissatisfaction within the Labour Party by pursuing a number of radical policies developed by its grassroots members.
In , several centrist and right-leaning Labour MPs formed a breakaway group called the Social Democratic Party SDP , a move which split Labour and is widely believed to have made the Labour Party unelectable for a decade.
The SDP formed an alliance with the Liberal Party which contested the and general elections as a pro-European, centrist alternative to Labour and the Conservatives.
After some initial success, the SDP did not prosper partly due to its unfavourable distribution of votes by the First-Past-The-Post electoral system , and was accused by some of splitting the Labour vote.
Support for the new party has increased since then, and the Liberal Democrats often referred to as Lib Dems gained an increased number of seats in the House of Commons at both the and general elections.
The Labour Party was defeated in a landslide at the general election , and Michael Foot was replaced shortly thereafter by Neil Kinnock as party leader.
Some observers say the Labour Party had by then morphed from a democratic socialist party to a social democratic party, a process which delivered three general election victories but alienated some of its core base; leading to the formation of the Socialist Labour Party UK.
A subset of Labour MPs stand as joint Labour and Co-operative candidates due to a long-standing electoral alliance between the Labour Party and the Co-op Party - the political arm of the British co-operative movement.
At the general election , 42 candidates stood using the Labour and Co-operative Party ticket,  of which 24 were elected.
This was an increase of 50 MPs on the result achieved in The SNP has enjoyed parliamentary representation continuously since After the Scottish parliamentary election, the SNP won enough seats to form a majority government, the first time this had ever happened since devolution was established in Members of the Scottish National Party and Plaid Cymru work together as a single parliamentary group  following a formal pact signed in This group currently has 39 MPs.
The Liberal Democrats won the joint-fourth largest number of seats at the general election, returning 8 MPs. The Liberal Democrats were founded in by an amalgamation of the Liberal Party with the Social Democratic Party, but can trace their origin back to the Whigs and the Rochdale Radicals who evolved into the Liberal Party.
The Liberal Party formed a government in and then alternated with the Conservative Party as the party of government throughout the late-nineteenth century and early-twentieth century.
The Liberal Democrats are a party with policies on constitutional and political reforms, including changing the voting system for general elections UK Alternative Vote AV referendum, , abolishing the House of Lords and replacing it with a member elected Senate, introducing fixed five-year Parliaments, and introducing a National Register of Lobbyists.
They also support what they see as greater fairness and social mobility. In the coalition government, the party promoted legislation introducing a pupil premium - funding for schools directed at the poorest students to give them an equal chance in life.
Founded in by Ian Paisley , it has grown to become the larger of the two main unionist political parties in Northern Ireland. Plaid Cymru has enjoyed parliamentary representation continuously since and had 3 MPs elected at the general election.
Following the Welsh Assembly elections, they joined Labour as the junior partner in a coalition government, but have fallen down to the third-largest party in the Assembly after the Assembly elections, and have become an opposition party.
It also has seats in the European Parliament , two seats on the London Assembly and around local councillors. They campaign mainly on issues such as reducing immigration and EU withdrawal.
The Respect party, a left-wing group that came out of the anti-war movement had a single MP, George Galloway from , and again between There are usually a small number of Independent politicians in parliament with no party allegiance.
In modern times, this has usually occurred when a sitting member leaves their party, and some such MPs have been re-elected as independents.
However, since , only two new members have been elected as independents without having ever stood for a major party:. It also has a number of councillors.
The Libertarian Party was founded in and has contested several local elections and parliamentary constituencies, gaining some local councillors.
The English Democrats , which wants a parliament for England, has some local councillors and had its candidate elected mayor of Doncaster in Several local parties contest only within a specific area, a single county, borough or district.
The most notable local party is Health Concern , which controlled a single seat in the UK Parliament from to The Jury Team , launched in March and described as a "non-party party", is an umbrella organisation seeking to increase the number of independent members of both domestic and European members of Parliament in Great Britain.
The OMRLP are distinguished by having a deliberately bizarre manifesto , which contains things that seem to be impossible or too absurd to implement — usually to highlight what they see as real-life absurdities.
In spite of or perhaps because of a reputation more satirical than serious, they have routinely been successful in local elections. After winning the largest number of seats and votes in the general election, the Conservatives first under David Cameron and now under Theresa May remain ahead of the Labour Party, led by Jeremy Corbyn since September The SNP has maintained its position in Scotland, the party was just short of an overall majority at the Scottish parliamentary elections in May This was won by Jeremy Corbyn with an increased majority.
He went on to lead the Labour party at the election, where they gained 30 seats. Following the vote to leave the European Union, Nigel Farage offered his own resignation as leader, something he had campaigned for since A leadership contest also took place in the Green Party, which led to the joint election on 2 September of Jonathan Bartley and Caroline Lucas as co-leaders, who took over the role in a job-share arrangement.
Strategic cross-party alliances have been initiated, including a " progressive alliance " and a "Patriotic Alliance",   as proposed by UKIP donor Aaron Banks.
All political parties have membership schemes that allow members of the public to actively influence the policy and direction of the party to varying degrees, though particularly at a local level.
The table below details the membership numbers of political parties that have more than 5, members. No data could be collected for the four parties of Northern Ireland: The UK is divided into a variety of different types of Local Authorities , with different functions and responsibilities.
England has a mix of two-tier and single-tier councils in different parts of the country. In Greater London , a unique two-tier system exists, with power shared between the London borough councils, and the Greater London Authority which is headed by an elected mayor.
Opponents of greater European integration are known as " Eurosceptics ", while supporters are known as "Europhiles".
Division over Europe is prevalent in both major parties, although the Conservative Party is seen as most divided over the issue, both whilst in Government up to and after , and between those dates as the opposition.
However, the Labour Party is also divided, with conflicting views over UK adoption of the euro whilst in Government — British nationalists have long campaigned against European integration.
In March , Parliament decided to not hold a referendum on the ratification of the Treaty of Lisbon , signed in December After the referendum, it was debated as to how and when the UK should leave the EU.
On 11 July , the Cabinet Office Minister, John Penrose failed to deliver a final answer on whether it would be at the disposal of the Prime Minister and one of the Secretaries of State , through the Royal prerogative , or of Parliament , through primary legislation.
In October the Conservative Prime Minister , Theresa May , announced that Article 50 would be invoked by "the first quarter of ". Consequently, the European Union Notification of Withdrawal Act empowering the prime minister to invoke Article 50 was passed and enacted by royal assent in March From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For the academic journal of the same name, see British Politics journal. Royal Coat of Arms. Joint Ministerial Committee Legislative consent motions Scotland.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. Monarchy of the United Kingdom. British House of Commons. Devolution in the United Kingdom.
National Assembly for Wales. English law and Northern Ireland law.
Maj Henry Adam Procter. Sir Richard Wells, 1st Baronet. Maj Basil Arthur John Peto. The Rt Hon Geoffrey Lloyd. Secretary of State for India and Burma.
Sir Edward William Salt. Violet Bathurst, Lady Apsley. The Hon Maj Lionel Berry. Col The Hon John Gretton. Camberwell North West contested Breconshire and Radnorshire.
Secretary of State for War. Lt Cdr Robert Tatton Bower. Lt Col David Rees-Williams. Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for Pensions. Under-Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs.
The Rt Hon Florence Horsbrugh. Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Health. Lt Col Sir John Mayhew. Lord of the Treasury. The Hon William Astor.
Sir Walter Womersley, 1st Baronet. Sir Austin Hudson, 1st Baronet. Col Thomas George Greenwell. The Hon Seymour Berry.
Col Sir Lambert Ward, 1st Baronet. The Rt Hon Richard Law. Ilford contested Ilford North. Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs.
Maj Abraham Montagu Lyons. Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Trade. Col Sir John Joseph Shute. Newcastle upon Tyne Central.
Newcastle upon Tyne West. Secretary for Overseas Trade. First Commissioner of Works. The Rt Hon Brendan Bracken. First Lord of the Admiralty.
Financial Secretary to the War Office. Lt Col Evelyn King. John Hely-Hutchinson, Viscount Suirdale. Sqn Ldr Samuel Segal. Preston contested Eton and Slough.
High Commissioner to Australia. The Rt Hon Ralph Assheton. Chairman of the Conservative Party. Under-Secretary of State for Scotland.
The Hon John Grimston. Sir Alfred Beit, 2nd Baronet. St Pancras South East. Sir James Frederick Emery. Secretary of State for Air.
Flt Lt Frank Beswick. Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries. Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty.
Cdr Christopher Nyholm Shawcross. Charles Wood, Lord Irwin. The Rt Hon William Mabane. Minister of State for Foreign Affairs.
The Rt Hon Ernest Brown. Flights cancelled after snow shuts airport 1 February Porn actor fined for threesome on Tube 1 February Grandmother killed by sleeping driver 1 February Woman in labour stranded by snowfall.
Boy, six, took knife to school. Rare ice pancakes form on cold river. Dozens brave snow to see royal couple. Also in the news.
Stranded dog rescued from icy canal bank 1 February Rough sleeping What is being done about homelessness? Januhairy What happened when four people grew out their body hair?